It ended after health authorities failed to identify a common cause.
But now another 11 cases have emerged in the eastern region of Ain, prompting officials to open a fresh inquiry.
The condition is a type of agenesis, where the upper limbs of a foetus fail to form correctly during pregnancy.
It includes entire missing upper limbs, missing forearms and hands, or fingers – but not unrelated medical conditions, such as missing thumbs.
The cases are clustered in the rural Ain area not far from the Swiss border, as well as in Brittany and Loire-Atlantique, two neighbouring regions on the north-west coast.
Health Minister Agnès Buzyn had already pledged a further investigation in the wake of the initial report’s lack of explanations, amid continued public concern and widespread media coverage.
Speaking on French television on Wednesday morning, she said the first results from the national inquiry would be published in January, with more to follow by summer.